After many years of research, American and Norwegian scientists have discovered and isolated a powerful biologically active natural substance beta-1,3 D glucan from the cell wall of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Harvard, Tulane, Louisville and others. beta-1,3 D glucan has been shown to be a potent immunomodulator.
Defensive cells were found to be 7 times more active after activation with beta glucan. The expansion of new research into the effects of beta glucans on the immune system came after Harvard University scientists discovered a specific receptor (Dectin-1) on the surface of defense cells.
This finding showed that macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils and NK cells were 7 times more active after beta glucan bound to the receptor site.
The immune system that fights various infectious and toxic agents consists of leukocytes (white blood cells), macrophage system and lymphatic tissue.
The special functions of macrophages in the immune system are as follows:
- 1. Macrophages in lymph tissue make direct contact with many lymphocytes. When macrophages destroy foreign organisms, they transfer antigenic material from those organisms to lymphocytes and activate lymphocytes to make antibodies.
- 2. Another product of the immune system are sensitized lymphocytes, called "T-cells", which can destroy a foreign organism, but also cause inflammatory reactions in infected tissues. Some of the T-cell products cause the movement of macrophages towards inflamed tissues and strongly activate them, thus helping to overcome the infection.
There are macrophages that move and roam the tissues, but the vast majority of monocytes, after entering the tissues and becoming macrophages, are fixed in the tissues and remain fixed for months or even years, until they are needed to perform specific protective function. Tissue macrophages look different in different tissues and are called by different names: Kupffer cells in the liver, tissue macrophages in the lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow, alveolar macrophages in the lung alveoli, tissue histiocytes, plasmatocytes or fixed subcutaneous macrophages and macrophages.
Tissue macrophages as the first line of defenseMacrophages that are already present in tissues, whether they are histiocytes in the subcutaneous tissue, alveolar macrophages in the lungs, microglia in the brain and elsewhere, immediately begin their action by phagocytosis. During the first hour, they represent the first line of defense against infection. Macrophages have the ability to recognize, devour and destroy any cell, organism or substance that does not belong or is not needed by the body (bacteria, viruses, fungi, dead, mutated or tumor cells). After the macrophages are activated by capturing beta-1,3D glucans at the receptor site, in the presence of a foreign microorganism or toxin, the production of a number of supporting substances in the process of immune response begins, ie. defense. These substances are anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-proteins that help destroy cancer cells), interferon and others. Macrophages then activate fibroblasts and promote wound healing.
Macrophages are involved on a daily basis in the detoxification process, anti-infective and anti-tumor protection, and in maintaining overall health integrity.
Beta-1,3 D Glucan Transfer Point
Beta glucan molecules are branched polymers of glucose, ie. polysaccharide (fiber).
Beta-1.3 D glucan manufactured by Transfer Point Inc. (USA) is a highly purified substance and the only one in the world that contains over 93% pure beta 1,3 / 1,6 glucans.
Beta glucan is a long-chain polysaccharide composed of glucose molecules that are chain-linked by various chemical bonds e.g.1.3 connections; 1.6 connections; 2.3 connections; 3.6 connections; 1.4 bonds It has been scientifically proven that the most biologically active beta glucan is in which glucose is linked by 1.3 and 1.6 bonds. These types of beta glucans are isolated from the cell wall of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Manufacturer Transfer Point Inc. has a patented production of its beta-1,3 D glucan from baker's yeast, which is also a hypoallergenic substance (does not cause allergies) of high pharmaceutical purity.
1,3; 1,6) within the beta glucan complex because it shows the quality of the product, ie. effectiveness on the immune system. Therefore, beta glucans from different manufacturers with a low concentration (%) of active bonds require a higher amount of substance for a certain biological effect, but significantly lower than Beta-1,3 D glucan (Transfer Point Inc.), which was confirmed in a study on University of Louisville, USA.
You can see the complete table of nutritional values HERE.